R U. Riordan Approved By J. Dyer Kenney and Kenneth F. Cjandler prepared For U. Environmental Protection Agency, to report Adult latin clubs atlanta data of interest to a limited of readers. Environmental Protection T,v, Research Triangle park, North carolinaor may be obtained, for a nominal cost, from the National Technical Information Service, u.
Department of Commerce, Port Royal Road, tlv models chandler, virginia This report was furnished to the u. The contents of this report are reproduced herein as morels from Chandler Evans. As specified in Exhibit A of the contract, Chandler Evans was to conduct comprehensive de studies pur- suant to the selection of conceptual models of vapor generator feed pumps that will satisfy the performance requirements of each of three Rankine cycle automotive power systems currently under development.
In pursuing the objective of providing variable output pumps for these applications, Chandler Evans conducted investigations of two selected courses toward achieving this goal: 1. Fixed displacement pumps with variable speed drives. APTD D.
As summarized below, each of these companies is exploring a different Rankine cycle concept utilizing a different cycle fluid. These pumps called boiler feed pumps deliver working fluid ai pressures from to psi over very wide flow and speed ranges. A positive displacement pump is considered the prime choice because of its inherent relatively high efficiency.
A typical positive dis- placement pump has a straight-line flow-speed relation- ship. The "no turndown" line in the preceding figure represents a positive displacement pump sized to meet the overall requirement of the operating envelope shown.
The excess flow must, however, be bypassed as cycle demand varies within the envelope. At "full turndown" as noted on the figure, for instance, we can have turn- downs of over It is apparent, then, that a fixed displacement pump, using a high pressure relief valve to obtain partial flows, will result in inefficient operation.
This can be done in either of two ways. First, by building a mechanism within the pump, the displacement can be varied at any engine speed. Secondly, a fixed dis- placement pump can be driven by a speed variator to obtain the wide range of flows through pump speed variation.
Again, referring to the preceding figure, the output curve could be rotated from "no turndown" to "full turndown" by varying the input drive speed over the turndown range of or whatever the require- ment may be. All pump output at high pressure would then go to the boiler, eliminating the need for a bypass valve to achieve the low flows.
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This study considers the various options for accomplish- ing the above noted function. Since the requirements of each of the power plants vary tv, three separate pumping systems have been studied in order to provide the fucked up slut overall approach for each application. PROJECT SUMMARY In the conduct of the parallel program of investigating fixed displacement pumps with variable speed drives and variable displacement pumps, and through contacts with the engine contr9ctors, the following conclusions and positions have been formulated.
L 1 Looking at the general overall operating envelopes of flow and speed for the various boiler feed pumps, the specified turndown mdoels approach levels of There appears to be a trend toward conservatism in order to insure sufficient turndown chabdler in the feed pumps.
These may possibly be increased somewhat by ex- tending the existing des. The high turndown ratios required by the systems can be obtained by combining a variable speed drive with a differential to expand the available turndown ranges of the drives, while paying a penalty in power consumption, cost, size and weight. Cost and performance trade- offs. System Approach Based on the preceding points, our study points toward a system Wife want real sex High Point either a gear or vane type pump in combination with a variable speed drive.
By this technique, the basic pump characteristic follows a much lower capacity limit through most of the operating range, and only at the high demand condition will the high capacity function be switched on.
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By so doing, the turndown range of the pump and variable speed drive. This may be accomplished by providing a supplemen- tal pump to be called in on demand or by running a two-stage pump in series normally, to be switched to parallel operation on demand. At the present time, Chandler Evans favors the latter method. This is described in more modelx on In keeping the chaandler package within reasonable performance limits, the expander low-speed, high flow and high-speed, low flow corners of the oper- ating envelope may become inaccessible.
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In order to achieve performance at these extremes, an accu- mulator may be used at the high flow condition and tlvv bypass valve at low flow. Any real assessment of performance, including over- all performance with the variable speed drive system, must be determined from running these pumps on the actual process fluids. Additional testing of this pump is planned with the AEF fluid.
Omdels and bearing tests have been conducted to ascertain the general wear xhandler of these components in Fluorinol 85, Dominate Madison woman, perchloroethylene and water. ALRC estimates that this testing will commence on or about December 15, Frequent commu- nication has been maintained to coordinate our efforts with their requirements. No de should be considered as standing on its own merits.
Before any pump de is accepted and before any hardware is fabricated, the pump must be satisfactorily coordinated into the whole system.
Chansler, thus, recommend that before hardware is fabricated, the pump supplier and the engine contractor enter into a period of active cooperation to develop the pump that best fulfills the engine requirements. DATE 3. The latest flow envelopes to which we addressed our attention are illustrated in Figures 1, 2 and 3. The Aerojet engine steady-state operating lines for various chandlr grades are superimposed on the overall flow envelope Figure 3. Although this information is not available for the other systems, it vhandler assumed that they will also follow a similar pattern.
This type of information is very valuable in understanding the feed tlv models chandler function in the system and has enabled us to better work toward satisfying the engine operating demands. In actual practice, the turndowns. To provide variable ,odels fluid delivery over the wide turndown ratios, two basic approaches were studied: 1.
A fixed displacement pump on a variable speed drive. The staging of a fixed displacement pump for series- parallel operation was also examined for efficiency optimization. All of these concepts will be developed in the en- suing s and in the Appendices. The torque and efficiency characteristics of the currently available types of variable speed drives are illustrated in Figures 4 and 5.
The extremely wide turndown ranges needed by each engine are beyond the limits of the finite-range variable speed drives discovered in our market research and analyzed in this study program. However, this is achieved at the expense of increased power losses and increased unit size, caused by a recirculating power loop within the jodels train. The variable tkv device must handle Lonely bored couger or housewife wanted added load plus the torque transmitted to the pump.
The net efficiency of the drive train is thereby diminished.
The necessary speed ranges could be obtained with an infinitely variable speed variator. The hydro- However, it was eliminated from consideration because of its cost, size, complexity and poor efficiency. The Lycoming Division of Aveo has an infinitely variable planetary gear drive under development. Its predicted performance characteristics are attractive. It was not considered Durham horny grannies the analyses contained herein because of its preliminary modeos a!
In time, however, it may prove to have application in a variable delivery pumping system. Ultimately, the position change of a mechanism within the device determines the output.
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The source of the pressure and means for controlling it must be developed into the power plant controlling mechanism by the engine manufacturer. Pumps only a positive displacement pump can meet the conditions of flow, pressure and efficiency de- manded by the Rankine cycle automotive power plants. The three modrls types of positive displacement pumps are described briefly below.
The role of inducers in the pumping system is also mentioned.
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They are somewhat intolerant of contaminant, tend to be bulky and are expensive. A discussion of de considerations for piston pumps is contained in Appendix H. They are of moderate cost, tolerate contamination very well and operate at reasonably good effi- ciencies.
Descriptive data and de considerations are contained in Appendix D. Although several types of vane pumps were investigated, only the balanced-rotor, fixed-clearance type is presented in the trade-off studies reported herein.
This configuration offers the best efficiencies because of its inherent low bearing and rotor loading. They have a reasonable tolerance for contami- nation and are relatively chandlfr. Gear pump efficiencies are within accept- able levels for consideration in this application, although they tend to be lower than those of the piston and vane pumps, especially at low speeds. Descrip- tive data and de considerations are contained in Appendix c. Inducers The dry lift capabilities of Tpv Evans gear and vane pumps are excellent.
There- fore, no problems are anticipated at start- up with the minimum liquid he specified. However, at operating speeds, the high pres- sure element of each pump studied must be charged to avoid cavitation.
Based on the data contained in Table II, integrated centrifugal inducers were deed for each unit. The development of the de data is explained in Appendix E. The test shown in Figure jodels indicate that the inducer des are conservative. A jet inducer was included in the study of Appendix E for possible application to a bypassing approach for the SES system.
A satisfactory inducer of the types shown in Appendix E will preclude the need for any other boost pump in the system. Such action necessarily will add cost to the pump. Chandler Evans currently has a variable displacement vane pump operating successfully on a development air- craft. Our experience with this pump is reflected in the descriptive information of Appendix F.
Prime producers of these devices include Vickers and Sundstrand. Meetings with engineers from these Woman seeking casual sex Downs and discussions relating to the use of variable dis- placement piston pumps with the Rankine cycle fluids, have been discouraging at best. These pumps have been developed to operate with specific hydraulic oils and ,odels the fluid properties to maximize performance.